Blood glucose



Glucose delivered to the muscle by blood may also act as a useful energy
source during exercise. The normal blood glucose concentration is around
5 mM, but can be elevated to values in excess of 7–8 mM (hyperglycemia)
following a high carbohydrate meal or reduced to values lower than 4 mM
(hypoglycemia) if exercising for prolonged periods of time without carbo-
hydrates being ingested. The glucose in blood is produced by the liver either
from glycogenolysis of its own glycogen stores or from gluconeogenesis, where
the glucose is produced from precursors such as lactic acid, alanine, pyruvic
acid, or glycerol.

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