Metabolic regulation

To ensure that ATP is provided rapidly or slowly, there needs to be regulation
of the metabolic processes. Such regulation is normally controlled during
steady-state exercise by circulating hormones secreted by endocrine glands
such as the adrenal glands or the pancreas. The hormones secreted by these
glands include adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine),
glucagon, and insulin, and they mediate their effects by activating inactive
enzymes present within the cell. However if the exercise is intense and rapid,
there may be no opportunity for hormones to regulate such activity as energy is
required within seconds. Under these circumstances the switching on of energy
processes must take place due to activation within the cell.

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